Sleep provides several vital functions, including maintenance of neuronal metabolism, resting of the cardiovascular system and balance of fluid metabolism. According to a survey by the National Institute of Sleep and Vigilance (2009), sleep disorders affect one in three people.
The main sleep disorders are:
- insomnia (lack of sleep) ;
- hypersomnias (excess of sleep) ;
- parasomnias (unusual manifestations during sleep, including sleep-disordered breathing) ;
- circadian rhythm disorders (dysfunctions of the internal clock).
Sleep disorders are common in people with mental disorders. In addition, chronic insomnia can cause certain conditions, such as mood disorders (depression) or anxiety disorders.
Insomnia is a disorder related to poor sleep, poor quality and non-recovery. The consequence is fatigue and drowsiness during the day, as well as irritability or mood disorders. Insomnia can be transient or chronic.
Transient insomnia occurs in the short term (up to three weeks). They usually have easily identifiable causes (poor sleep hygiene, consumption of exciting substances, stressful life events, medical conditions, environmental changes). Now that different researches are being conducted, the use of Balance CBD has appeared to be quite important in the treatment process.
Chronic insomnia is sleep disturbance that has been manifesting for more than three weeks and whose causes are multifactorial and often less easily identifiable. We distinguish:
Psychophysiological insomnia: a stressful event will trigger bad sleep habits that will become chronic thereafter. The person then develops conditioning (fear of not sleeping or sleeping badly), which will reinforce and aggravate the insomnia;
Psychiatric insomnia: people with certain mental disorders (mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, schizophrenia) often have insomnia;
Insomnia related to medications: insomnia is a side effect of certain medications, such as amphetamines, antidepressants, anxiolytics and antiparkinsonians;
Organic Insomnia: Insomnia may be related to medical conditions, sleep-disordered breathing or abnormal movements during sleep:
Medical conditions causing insomnia: these are organic or neurological conditions, such as head trauma, degenerative neurological diseases, stroke, acute pain, lung diseases, cardiovascular and endocrine disorders and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Sleep breathing disorders: sleep apnea-hypopneas (AHS) may be in the form of a decrease in respiratory activity (hypopnea), stopping with persistence (obstructive apnea) or even interruptions in ventilatory control (central apnea). Apnea is an interruption of breathing for more than 10 seconds. It can cause awakenings of short duration and thus fragment sleep. The consequences are significant daytime sleepiness, cognitive impairment (concentration, memory) and snoring;
When a person has more than 15 apneas or hypopneas per hour of sleep, this is called sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). This phenomenon affects men more than women. It is often explained by abnormalities of the upper airways. Smoking and obesity are aggravating factors.
Abnormal movements during sleep: Among the most common are the periodic movements of the legs during sleep (MPJS) and Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). MPJSs last between 0.5 and 5 seconds and occur every 4-90 seconds. They result in short awakenings and disorganized sleep (insomnia or excessive sleep). RLS is unpleasant sensations in the legs and an irresistible need to move when awake, often in the evening when falling asleep. In 4 out of 5 cases, SJSR is associated with the MPJS.